Covenents 2

Covenants 2


MOSAIC Covenant

The Mosaic covenant was a temporary covenant given to Israel on Mt. Sinai and was fulfilled by Jesus. A later covenant, the New covenant, terminates it. It is the most complicated of all. It details the animal sacrifices, the priesthood, the sanctuary and the complete governing of the nation Israel, both spiritual and physical. It was made with Israel and only Israel, as seen in Exodus 24:7-8 and Deuteronomy 5:1-5. This covenant was made 430 years after the Abrahamic covenant: (Exodus 12:40 and Galatians 3:14-18). In Egypt, Israel became a great nation but failed in their relationship with God: (Joshua 24:14 and Ezekiel 20:5-9). God prepared a man, (Moses), to deliver them. Moses tried to do this in his own strength by killing an Egyptian. To get away from the wrath of Pharaoh for his killing of the Egyptian, Moses fled to Midian and remained there for 40 years. God appeared to him there in a burning bush and told him what he had to do. When he finally agreed to go and was on his way, God sought to kill him for failing to keep the Abrahamic covenant in his family: (Genesis 17:9-14). He could not deliver Israel until his family was under the Abrahamic covenant. It was his responsibility to circumcise his children. He circumcised his 2 sons and then God made him well: (Exodus 4:24-26). God gave Moses some special signs and wonders to help Israel accept him and to help Pharaoh let the people go. The 10th plague brings us to the celebration of the Passover Feast. Israel leaves Egypt and not much time passes before they start complaining. There is much going on after leaving Egypt, but finally they arrive at Mt. Sinai. The generation that left Egypt consisted of men 20 years old and older, not men under 20 nor women. They complained and murmured all the time. They proved themselves to be a faithless generation. They provoked God many times by disobedience even though they had promised God to obey all of His words: (Exodus 19:8 and 24:3,7). God chose Israel out of all of the nations to be a model nation by which He could show His grace and mercy to other nations, but their failure to be a model nation is illustrated by the guilt of the entire world. The Mosaic covenant sets forth the divine standard of righteousness: (Psalm 19:7-10). It gives a clear external definition of sin: (Romans 7:7). It exposes Israel and all the world of their guilt before God: (Romans 3:19). The law put them under a schoolmaster to prepare them for the coming of their Messianic Seed, Christ, and to provide a ceremonial law in the sacrificing of animals for providing atonement for sin. Many people think that atonement is a big word with deep meanings. It is. But for our purposes, all it means is the covering over of the sin. God allowed the blood of the animals to cover the sin. In other words, hide it from His eyes so that He could have fellowship with the sinner. It does not wash it away, but points to the cross and the blood of Christ, which does wash it away. This way of hiding God’s eyes from the sin of man was put in operation by God Himself, not man. The blood of the animals was a temporary atonement for sin. Sacrifices were part of the law, but the law could not justify, (make righteous), man before God. Galatians 3:10-16 explains to us that it is by the grace of God and by faith in Jesus Christ that we are justified. The Mosaic covenant does not annul or replace the Abrahamic covenant. It runs parallel with it. Galatians 3:15-19 shows that both covenants flowed to the cross and Jesus Christ. There are more words and chapters in this covenant than in any other Old Testament covenant. All of these words can be classified under 3 major divisions of the law: moral law, civil law and ceremonial law. Moral law would be the 10 Commandments. Civil law samples would be found in Exodus chapters 21 to 23. The ceremonial law had to do with all of the sacrifices and various feast days. All 3 come under the 1 word, ‘law’. Abraham’s covenant was of promise. The Mosaic covenant was of conditions. The consequence of their unbelief and the punishment for their disobedience was clearly spelled out to them. In the 10 Commandments that were given to Moses, the 1st four had to do with the relationship between God and man. The last six had to do with the relationship between man and man. In Deuteronomy 11: 26-28, we read of blessings and curses: blessings for obeying and curses for disobeying. The love of God is the key to obeying His commands. There was no oath attached to this covenant. This covenant has the fullest and most detailed description of sacrifices. God was very exact as to what happened to the bodies of the sacrificial animals and He was also particular about what happened to the blood. There were 5 types of offerings, the Burnt offering, the Meal offering and the Peace offering. These 3 offerings were voluntary. The Sin offering and the Trespass offering were 2 offerings that were compulsory. There were other sacrifices for cleansing lepers, the daily sacrifice, the Sabbath day, the feast days and others. No matter how much animal blood was shed, it could not remove the sin. All it could do was cover sin until the blood of Jesus would wash sin away. There are 5 major truths about the blood; (1. It has a voice: Genesis 4:10 and Hebrews 12:24. (2. It is the life: Genesis 9:4-5 and Deuteronomy 12:23. (3. It is an atonement for the soul: Leviticus 17:11-12. (4. It is the evidence of outpouring life: Deuteronomy 12:16, 23-24. (5. It is evidence of judgment of sin by death: Leviticus 16:15-16. Until this covenant, the patriarchs were the mediators of the covenants. In this covenant there were 2 mediators. Moses acted as the king and was the mediator of the words of this covenant and Aaron the High Priest was mediator of the blood of this covenant. In Exodus 19:1-6, we read that Israel was to be a kingdom of priest, but they failed, so God chose the tribe of Levi for that purpose. The dual king-High priesthood of Moses and Aaron prefigures the King-High Priesthood of Jesus Christ. The Levitical priesthood prefigures the priesthood of all believers in Christ: (Hebrews 2:5,9). In Exodus 25:8, God tells Moses to have the people build Him a tabernacle so that He could dwell with them. The details for the building of this tabernacle are found in Exodus chapters 25 to 40. This tabernacle is the sanctuary of this covenant. The 1st chamber is called the Holy of Holies. This is where God dwelt. No one could enter it except the High Priest, once a year, on the Day of Atonement. The 2nd chamber, called the Holy Place, had need of the priest ministering in it daily. A veil separated the 2 chambers. The 3rd area was the outer court that surrounded the 2 chambers and in it were the Brazen Altar and the Brazen Laver. This is where the priest performed the daily sacrifices and ceremonial cleansing by blood and water. There is much more that can be said about this covenant, but it’s perfect fulfillment is found in our Lord Jesus Christ.



The Palestinian covenant was made in the land of Moab: (Deuteronomy 9:1), and was given to the 2nd generation of Israel since leaving Egypt. After 40 yrs of wandering in the desert, the 1st generation had all died except 2, Joshua and Caleb. The Mosaic Covenant was given to the 1st generation out of Egypt at Mt Sinai and they were given all the laws for the people. The Palestinian Covenant was given to the 2nd generation just before they entered the land that God had promised Abraham, and they were given laws for the land. This Covenant is closely associated with the Mosaic Covenant. This generation was under both covenants. The word land is used approximately 180 times in the book of Deuteronomy, a primary focus. In Deuteronomy 8:7-10 and 11:9-17, and Leviticus 26:3-13, Moses gave the Israelites a good description of the Promised Land. God promised that if they were obedient, many blessings would come upon them and overtake them. God also promised that if they were disobedient, many cursings would come upon them and overtake them. The following are the promises of Blessing found in Deuteronomy 28:1-14 and the promises of Cursing found in Deuteronomy 28:15-68.

Blessings:                                           Cursings:

a. Blessed in the city                          a. Cursed in the city

b. Blessed in the field                         b. Cursed in the field

c. Blessed in fruitfulness                    c. Cursed in fruitfulness

d. Blessed in daily provision              d. Cursed in daily provision

e. Blessed in daily activities               e. Cursed in daily activities

f. Blessed in victory over enemies      f. Cursed in labor

g. Blessed in store houses                   g. Cursed in diseases

h. Blessed in labor                              h. Cursed in the land

i. Blessed in seasonal rain                   i. Cursed in the lack of rains

j. Blessed in national position             j. Cursed in defeat by their enemies

k. Blessed in commerce                      k. Cursed in captivities

                                                             l. Cursed in domestic life

                                                            m. Cursed in possessions

                                                             n. Cursed in national position


The fulfillment of the promises of blessing can be found in the books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings and 1 and 2 Chronicles. In Leviticus 25:23-24 God says that the land is His and He is Lord of the land. Today we would say Landlord, and as Landlord, God dictates the terms or conditions by which the Israelites could possess this land. In the Mosaic covenant, the Sabbath day, the day of rest, was the emphasis. In the Palestinian covenant, the Sabbatical year, every 7th year, was a year of Sabbath rest for the land and it was the emphasis. Leviticus 25:1-7 tells us that they could not sow the field or prune the vineyard on that 7th year. Because of the disobedience of Judah, the southern kingdom, in 606 BC, they were overrun by Nebuchadnezzar and taken to Babylon as captives for 70 years as punishment because they had not allowed the land to rest for 70 of the 7th year Sabbaths: (2 Chronicles 36:21). There is an oath involved with the curses and it’s found in Daniel 9:11. Remember, Daniel was 1 of those who were taken captive to Babylon. Deuteronomy is the book of this covenant: (Deuteronomy 31:9-10, 24-26). The blood of this covenant is found in Deuteronomy 27:5-7. The burnt offerings and the peace offerings were voluntary. The mediator of this covenant is the same as prescribed in the Mosaic covenant. After the death of Moses the mediator of words and Aaron the mediator of blood, Eleazar, the son of Aaron, became the High Priest and thus became mediator of both the words and the blood. In Psalm 78:54 and Exodus 15:17, we read that the land of Palestine was God’s sanctuary. In this land was the Holy City: (Nehemiah 11:1,18, the Holy Hill: (Psalm 15:1), the Holy Temple:  (Psalm 5:7), the Holy Mountain: (Daniel 9:16, the Holy Land:  (Zechariah 2:12). In Deuteronomy 27:4-8 Moses commands the building of the altar and the sacrifices to be done, and in Joshua 8:30-32, Joshua has it done. In Deuteronomy 27:11-13, Moses commands that 6 tribes stand on Mount Gerizim, the mount of blessing and 6 tribes on Mount Ebal, the mount of cursing and in Joshua 8:33-35, Joshua has it done. The curses are found in Deuteronomy 27:15-26 and the blessings in Deuteronomy 28:1-14. With all of this, the land and the people were consecrated unto God. The blessings and cursings had to do with their performance. If they obeyed God, the blessings would come. If they disobeyed Him, then the cursings would come. The Sabbath Year of ‘rest for the land’ was a very important part of the covenant. Israel continually disobeyed and was punished in many ways. Finally, the northern kingdom of Israel was cast out of the land in 721 BC by the Assyrians and taken into captivity, never to return again. The southern kingdom of Judah was cast out in 606 BC and taken into captivity by the Babylonians, and after 70 years a remnant was allowed to return. Before the cross, Israel was supposed to be the base for God’s redemption, but since the cross, the land has ceased to be the focal point. It may be called the Holy Land, but it is not a holy land. The focal point of redemption is no longer a promised place, but is now a promised Person; Jesus Christ. Today, the church of Jesus Christ is God’s land and He cultivates it to get fruit from it.


DAVIDIC Covenant

The Davidic covenant is an extension of the Abrahamic covenant. The chief promise of this covenant has to do with kingship. In the Abrahamic covenant, kingship was promised to Abraham in Genesis17: 6, to Sarah in Genesis 17:16, to Jacob in Genesis 35:11, and to Judah in Genesis 49:10. In the Mosaic covenant, kingship is promised to the nation Israel in Numbers 23:21 and in Deuteronomy 17:14-20. There are promises in this covenant in 2 Samuel 7:10 and 1 Chronicles 17:9. There is an appointed land and God ordained that they should move no more. Abraham, Isaac and Jacob moved all over the area but had no place to call their own. In 2 Samuel 7:11 and 1 Chronicles 17:10, they were promised victory over their enemies and also ‘rest’. David not only regained all of the land that Israel had lost, but also conquered the land that was promised to Abraham in 2 Chronicles 9:26. David would have a ruling dynasty according to 2 Samuel 7:11-16 and 1 Chronicles 17:11-15. His seed would be on the throne of his kingdom forever. Under the Abrahamic covenant, God chose a nation, (Israel), and from this nation, a tribe, (Judah). Under the Davidic covenant, God chose a family, ‘David of Jesse’. All of the kings on the throne of the house of Judah, (tribes of Judah and Benjamin), range from Solomon in 1 Kings chapters 1-11 to Zedekiah in 2 Kings 24:17-20 and chapter 25. None of the kings of the northern kingdom, (the other ten tribes), were of the Davidic seed. David died in the year 1015 BC and Solomon became king. All of the kings of Judah sat on the throne in Jerusalem for approximately 409 years until 606 BC. For the next 606 years, there was no Davidic king sitting on the throne in Jerusalem. Does that mean that God broke His promise to David? The answer is an emphatic NO. Even though there was no king sitting on the throne, God’s promise to Abraham and David of their seed sitting on the throne is fulfilled in Jesus, who is the Seed Royal, the King of Kings. Luke 1:31-33 tells us, before the fact, that Jesus would be king. Acts 2:29-36 tells us, after the fact, that Jesus was king. In Matthew 1, you will find that the line of David continues from his son Solomon, to Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus. In Luke 3, you will find that the line of David continues through his son Nathan, to Mary, the mother of Jesus. Why the two lines? Because one was a physical line and the other was a spiritual line. In Matthew, we see the physical line. All kings that are recorded in scripture from Solomon to Zedekiah come from this line. When Jesus was born, everyone thought that Joseph was His father. No one knew that Jesus’ father was God until He died and the gospels were written. The line that comes through Nathan is the spiritual line.  By this, I mean that it leads to Jesus, who was a spiritual king. Jesus was never anointed a physical king. He is the spiritual king and David’s throne, which Jesus sits upon, is in heaven. There is no other mention of any of the persons in Nathan’s line, in the bible, except in this genealogy. Solomon’s line is physical because we can see all the kings. In Nathan’s line there were no kings except Jesus. The focal point of the Davidic covenant is found in 2 Samuel 7:1-10, where David wanted to build God’s house. God refuses to allow him to do it, but God promised David that He would build David’s house. This is not referring to a building but to his posterity. Solomon, David’s son, was allowed to build the temple. The temple prefigures Christ: (John 2:18-21), and the church: (1 Corinthians 3:16, 19-22). In 2 Samuel 7:18-29 and 1 Chronicles 17:16-27, David, in his prayer, professes his faith. Obedience was also a requirement: (2 Samuel 7:14 and Psalm 89:30-32). This covenant was confirmed by an oath: (Psalm 89:3-4). There were many blood sacrifices in this covenant, but in David we also see spiritual sacrifices: (Psalm 27:6 and 116:17-19, Hebrews 13:15-16 and 1 Peter 2:5). The seal of the covenant is in Psalm 89:34-37, where God promised David that He would not alter or break this covenant and that his seed and his throne would endure forever. God uses the sun and moon to establish it. As long as the ordinances of heaven, sun, moon and so on, remain in affect, the promise to David of his seed and throne also remain in affect. Christ is the ultimate fulfillment of this covenant. In Jesus, David finds his Lord (as to His Divinity) and his son (as to His Humanity).

Bill Gauthier

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